Simultaneity Factors of Public Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Real-World Occupation Data
Christopher Hecht, Jan Figgener, Dirk Uwe Sauer, World electric vehicle journal, Vol. 13, 20 July 2022.
Charging of electric vehicles may cause stress on the electricity grid. Grid planners need clarity regarding likely grid loading when creating extensions. In this paper, we analyse the simultaneity factor (SF) or peak power of public electric vehicle charging stations with different recharging strategies. This contribution is the first of its kind in terms of data quantity and, therefore, representativeness. We found that the choice of charging strategy had a massive impact on the electricity grid. The current “naive” charging strategy of plugging in at full power and recharging until the battery is full cause limited stress. Price-optimised recharging strategies, in turn, create high power peaks. The SFs varied by strategy, particularly when using several connectors at once. Compared to the SF of a single connector in naive charging, the SF decreased by approximately 50% for groups of 10 connectors. For a set of 1000 connectors, the SF was between 10% and 20%. Price-optimised strategies showed a much slower decay where, in some cases, groups of 10 connectors still had an SF of 100%. For sets of 1000 connectors, the SF of price-optimised strategies was twice that of the naive strategy. Overall, we found that price optimisation did not reduce electricity purchase costs by much, especially compared to peak-related network expansion costs.