The Influence of Frequency Containment Reserve on the Operational Data and the State of Health of the Hybrid Stationary Large-Scale Storage System


Kevin Jacqué, Lucas Koltermann, Jan Figgener, Sebastian Zurmühlen, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Energies, Vol. 15, 13. Februar 2022.



The expansion of renewable energy with its volatile feed-in character places higher demands on the power grid of the future. Large-scale storage systems (LSS) are a promising option for supporting the electricity grid and have been gaining importance in the last years, both on the market for frequency containment reserve (FCR) and in research. The majority of publications investigating the interaction between storage and FCR are based on simulations rather than on field measurements. This paper presents the analyses of multi-year, high-resolution field measurements of the hybrid 6 MW/7.5 MWh battery storage “M5BAT” to address this issue. The influence of FCR operation on the operation and degradation of the hybrid LSS and the individual battery technologies is investigated via a statistical evaluation of the historical operating data between 2017 and 2021. The data-based analysis of the LSS and the individual battery technologies reveals a high availability of the LSS of over 96.5%. Furthermore, the FCR operation results in an average SOC of the LSS of 50.5% and an average C-rate of the battery units of 0.081 C. A capacity test after four years of operation exposes that the lead-acid batteries have experienced a loss of energy capacity of up to 36%, whereas the lithium batteries have only experienced a loss of up to 5%. The calendar ageing predominates in this context. The presented results can be used to investigate and model the influence of FCR on the operation and battery degradation of the LSS and its different battery technologies.


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