Evaluation of the Effects of Smart Charging Strategies and Frequency Restoration Reserves Market Participation of an Electric Vehicle


Fabian Rücker, Michael Merten, Jingyu Gong, Roberto Villafáfila-Robles, Ilka Schoeneberger, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Energies, Vol. 13, June 2020



The emergence of electric vehicles offers the opportunity to decarbonize the transportation and mobility sector. With smart charging strategies and the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, electric vehicle owners can reduce their electricity bill as well as reduce their carbon footprint. We investigated smart charging strategies for electric vehicle charging at household and workplace sites with photovoltaic systems. Furthermore, we investigated the participation of an electric vehicle in the provision of positive automatic frequency restoration reserve (aFRR) in Germany from 30 October 2018 to 31 July 2019. We find that the provision of positive aFRR in Germany returns a positive net return. The positive net return is, however, not sufficient to cover the current investment cost for a necessary control unit. For home charging, we find that self-sufficiency rates of up to 48.1% and an electricity cost reduction of 17.6% for one year can be reached with unidirectional smart charging strategies. With bidirectional strategies, self-sufficiency rates of up to 56.7% for home charging and electricity cost reductions of up to 26.1% are reached. We also find that electric vehicle (EV) owners who can charge at their workplace can reduce their electricity cost further. The impact of smart charging strategies on battery aging is also discussed.


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