The development of stationary battery storage systems in Germany – A market review
Jan Figgener, Peter Stenzel, Kai-Philipp Kairies, Jochen Linßen, David Haberschusz, Oliver Wessels, Georg Angenendt, Martin Robinius, Detlef Stolten, Dirk Uwe Sauer
Journal of Energy Storage, Vol. 29, June 2020
The market for stationary battery storage systems (BSS) has been growing strongly around the world for several years. The areas of application for BSS range from ancillary services, to reductions in commercial power prices, to an increase in solar self-consumption in private homes. This wide range of applications, combined with the strong market growth, has led to significant research in the field of BSS. The central topics of these research activities include the simulation of BSS in renewable energy systems, the development of operating strategies and the economic evaluation of these. However, the young market lacks transparency and the underlying assumptions about prices and battery dimensions often do not correspond to reality. To address this issue, this paper provides detailed information about the markets of home storage systems (HSS), industrial storage systems (ISS), and large-scale storage systems (LSS) in Germany. We have been continuously building a database on the HSS and ISS market with accompanying research on subsidy programs and additional research. Furthermore, we have compiled the dataset on LSS in parallel through constant research and publish it with this paper. Our analyses show that by the end of 2018, a total of 125,000 HSS, with a battery power of about 415 MW and battery capacity of 930 MWh, had been installed in Germany. The current state of the ISS database, however, does not allow sharp estimates on the overall German ISS market, but shows the wide capacity and power ranges from some kW / kWh to nearly one MW / MWh for these systems. The 59 LSS have an accumulated power of 400 MW and a capacity of about 550 MWh. They operate mainly in the market of frequency containment reserve (FCR). Lithium-ion technologies dominate the HSS and LSS markets with high shares. The specific prices of this technology have fallen by more than 50% in recent years and were around 1,150 €/kWh in the HSS market and 800 €/kWh in the LSS market in 2018. Our results provide a solid basis for further research on the current and future status of BSS. Research from around the world can adapt the results pertaining to Germany as one of the pioneering markets to other countries.