Providing frequency control reserve with photovoltaic battery energy storage systems and power-to-heat coupling
Georg Angenendt, Sebastian Zurmühlen, JanFiggener, Kai-Philipp Kairies and Dirk Uwe Sauer; Energy, March 2020, Vol. 194
The number of households with photovoltaic battery storage systems is steadily growing, and so is the number of heat pump installations. An integrated home combines domestic battery systems and a heat pump for power-to-heat coupling. During winter, storage systems in an integrated home are not used to their full capacity due to low solar radiation. This potential can be used to enhance the economics by applying a dual-use scheme. In this publication, an integrated home that participates in the frequency control reserve market is investigated.
A major advantage of integrated homes with power-to-heat coupling in comparison to standalone battery storages is the additional flexibility to absorb negative control reserve power in the heating sector. Seasonal variation of feed-in from photovoltaics is considered by an advanced strategy for variable provision of control reserve.
Results show that a dual-use operation with participation in the control reserve market can increase the profitability of storage systems. Market participation leads to accelerated battery aging, mainly driven by increased calendar aging. This is overcompensated by the possible incomes. Under consideration of low costs for market participation, a constant provision of at least 3 kW of reserve power could be economical. A variable provision further enhances economic efficiency.
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