Feature-conserving gradual anonymization of load profiles and the impact on battery storage systems
Benedikt Tepe, David Haberschusz, Jan Figgener, Holger Hesse, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Andreas Jossen, Applied Energie, Vol. 343, 15 May 2023.
Electric load profiles are highly relevant for battery storage research and industry as they determine system design and operation strategies. However, data obtained from electrical load measurements often cannot be shared or published due to privacy concerns. This paper presents a methodology to gradually anonymize load profiles while conforming to various degrees of anonymity. It segregates the original load profile into base and peak sequences and extracts features from each of the sequences. With the help of the features, a synthetic, anonymized load profile is created. Different levels of anonymization can be selected, which transform the original profile to the desired extent. A random permutation of the peak sequences or base sequences is used to achieve this transformation. Exemplary profiles from a household and an electric vehicle charging station are used to demonstrate the functionality of the anonymization. The indicators of the anonymized load profiles are compared with the original ones in both time and frequency domains, and the effects of load profile anonymization on the operation of battery storage systems in two scenarios are analyzed. While the anonymized load profiles retain the time-invariant indicators from the original profile, the permutation causes a loss of regularity in the load profiles. As a result, relevant indicators of battery storage systems subjected to these anonymized profiles deviate to a greater extent in time-dependent applications such as self-consumption increase. This is reflected in the overestimation of equivalent full cycles by up to 6% and underestimation of self-sufficiency by up to 9 percentage points. In time-independent applications such as peak shaving, however, the indicators can be well reproduced with deviations of up to 3% despite the lost regularity. In order to make the anonymization methodology usable for everyone, we present the open-source tool LoadPAT, in which users can anonymize their load profiles and choose their desired level of anonymization. This work is intended to further encourage the dissemination of open-source data.
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