Standard Load Profiles for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in Germany Based on Representative, Empirical Data
Christopher Hecht, Jan Figgener, Xiaohui Li, Lei Zhang, Dirk Uwe Sauer, energies, Vol. 16, 10 March 2023.
Electric vehicles are becoming dominant in the global automobile market due to their better environmental friendliness compared to internal combustion vehicles. An adequate network of public charging stations is required to fulfil the fast charging demands of EV users. Knowing the shape and amplitude of their power curves is essential for power purchase planning and grid capacity sizing. Based on a large-scale empirical and representative dataset, this paper creates standard load profiles for various power levels, station sizes, and operating environments. It is found that the average power per charge point increases with rated station power, particularly for a rated power above 100 kW, and decreases with the number of charge points per station for AC chargers. For AC chargers, it is revealed how the shape of the power curve largely depends on the environment of a station, with urban settings experiencing the highest average power of 0.71 kW on average leading to an annual energy sale of 6.2 MWh. These findings show that the rated grid capacity can be well below the sum of the rated power of each charge point.