Model-based system design for 2nd-life usage scenarios of mobile battery systems



Dominik Jöst

Head of Section Storage System Technology and Vehicle Integration


+49 241 80 49396



In the research project "Model2Life", the ISEA of RWTH Aachen University together with the partner institutes MSE and PEM of RWTH Aachen University are researching the optimization of the reusability of traction battery systems. The main objectives of this joint project are to significantly increase the reuse rate of used battery cells that are still functional and to improve the product and process design of battery systems by optimizing the interface between 1st-life and 2nd-life, thus enabling closed-loop recycling. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) with more than 1.3 million euros.

  Parameter-level system model for efficiently optimized 2nd-life battery systems Parameter-level system model for efficiently optimized 2nd-life battery systems

The research project focuses on the topic of sustainability, since an economic recovery of functional battery cells not only offers a considerable cost reduction potential, but also an ecological necessity to reduce the use of resources. Furthermore, the factors influencing aging and service life on performance and safety in the second life cycle are being investigated. The project can thus sustainably strengthen the innovation pipeline within the framework of the BMBF umbrella concept Research Factory Battery, since the development of cell and system concepts is already designed in the early phase to meet the requirements of later use in a second life cycle.

In the project, ISEA is responsible for the necessary development of adapted diagnostic methods and models of battery cells and systems for integration into model-based system development. On the other hand, BMS hardware concepts will be further developed especially with regard to use in 1st and 2nd life, which includes efficient and safe operation with diverging cell properties. To this end, cloud-based models and machine learning approaches are being further developed. In addition, ISEA contributes its expertise in the requirements of mobile and stationary storage applications and supports system modeling using existing and adapted electric battery cell and system models. The solutions found will be transferred to real application scenarios and evaluated in them.

The PEM participates in the project in the application identification as well as the requirements analysis in the first and second life cycle of the battery systems. In addition, it contributes its expertise in remanufacturing-oriented product design with simultaneous consideration of producibility. Existing preliminary work in the field of design for remanufacturing allows the concepts developed to be deepened and expanded. In addition, the PEM contributes by further development and optimization of the domain-specific models and methods for the use of the installation space requirement and design of the thermal behavior of cell and system of the technical goals.

Numerous domain-specific models are used in battery development, but they are insufficiently interconnected. The technical objective of the MSE is therefore to link the individual models to form a system model and thus to enable the determination of an overall optimum. In addition to the development models, the operation and remanufacturing phases with the associated PEM and ISEA models are also taken into account - as shown in Figure 1. In addition to the optimized design for remanufacturing, the created continuity should enable the identification of harmful operating situations of the battery during 1st-life use and allow a real-time adjustment of the operating strategy.

Thus, the research project contributes to the strengthening of the innovation pipeline within the BMBF umbrella concept Research Factory Battery, in particular by developing more sustainable battery system concepts through the research project and showing how systems can be used further and longer in different ways through an intelligent design.



01st January 2021 – 31th December 2023



Federal Ministry of Education and Research  

The Model2Life project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the funding code 03XP0334.



Institute for Machine Elements and Systems Engineering (MSE) Logo Institute for Production Engineering of E-Mobility Components (PEM) Logo