From Lithium to Emerging Mono- and Multivalent- Cations Based Rechargeable Batteries: Non-aqueous Organic Electrolyte and Interphase Perspective
Heng Zhang, Lixin Qiao, Hannes Kühnle, Egbert Figgemeier, Michael Armand, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie Eshetu, Energy & Environmental Science, 09. November 2022.
Since the oil crisis in the 1970s, the importance of rechargeable batteries has been noted by academia and industrial sectors. This becomes more prominent with increasing demand in e-mobility and integration of renewable sources into the energy mix ecosystem. Despite the great success of lithium-ion batteries in portable consumer electronics and above-mentioned domains, it seems to be difficult to further expand the technical domains of large volumes due to limited resources of some key elements (lithium, cobalt, etc.). Emerging mono-valent (e.g., sodium, potassium) and multi-valent (magnesium, calcium, zinc, and aluminum, etc.) batteries have been expected to tackle resource limitation and related challenges. Herein, we present the historical development of non-aqueous organic electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interphases, and focus on the similarities and distinctions between lithium-based batteries and other emerging complementary battery technologies. Special attention is paid to some basic parameters for solvents and salts, including donor numbers and Eigen values, for better manifesting the transport behavior in bulk electrolyte. Moreover, key parameters impacting the features of electrode-electrolyte interphases are critically analyzed for each battery configurations. We also discuss the possible strategies to enhance the physical (e.g., transport behavior, mechanical properties) and (electro)chemical properties of electrolytes and interphases, aiming at promoting the development of sustainable and high-performance mono- and multi-valent batteries for practical applications. Particularly, remarks on whether the accumulated facts in lithium are transferable or not to other emerging battery systems are scrutinized.