A Comprehensive Electric Vehicle Model for Vehicle-to-Grid Strategy Development


Fabian Rücker, Ilka Schoeneberger, Till Wilmschen, Ahmed Chahbaz, Philipp Dechent, Felix Hildenbrand, Elias Barbers, Matthias Kuipers, Jan Figgener, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Energies, Vol. 15, 07 June 2022.



A comprehensive electric vehicle model is developed to characterize the behavior of the Smart e.d. (2013) while driving, charging and providing vehicle-to-grid services. To facilitate vehicle-to-grid strategy development, the EV model is completed with the measurement of the on-board charger efficiency and the charging control behavior upon external set-point request via IEC 61851-1. The battery model is an electro-thermal model with a dual polarization equivalent circuit electrical model coupled with a lumped thermal model with active liquid cooling. The aging trend of the EV’s 50 Ah large format pouch cell with NMC chemistry is evaluated via accelerated aging tests in the laboratory. Performance of the model is validated using laboratory pack tests, charging and driving field data. The RMSE of the cell voltage was between 18.49mV and 67.17mV per cell for the validation profiles. Cells stored at 100% SOC and 40 °C reached end-of-life (80% of initial capacity) after 431–589 days. The end-of-life for a cell cycled with 80% DOD around an SOC of 50% is reached after 3634 equivalent full cycles which equates to a driving distance of over 420,000 km. The full parameter set of the model is provided to serve as a resource for vehicle-to-grid strategy development.


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