Optimal pool composition of commercial electric vehicles in V2G fleet operation of various electricity markets


Benedikt Tepe, Jan Figgener, Stefan Englberger, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Andreas Jossen, Holger Hesse, Applied Energy, Vol. 308, 15. Februar 2022.



The market ramp-up of electromobility is shifting vehicle-to-grid (V2G) issues into the focus of research and industry. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the potential to support the trend towards renewable energies in their role as storage units during idle times. To participate in balancing power and energy markets, EVs are pooled via aggregators. Instead of a random composition, aggregators can smartly compose their pools and add only those vehicles that actually contribute to the pool’s performance, gaining advantages over competitors. The optimization methods presented in this paper form optimized pool combinations based on the power and energy capability profiles of commercial EVs. Genetic algorithms are used to determine the revenues of the possible pools per participating EV. The use cases analyzed are the provision of balancing power on the frequency containment reserve (FCR) market of Central Europe and energy arbitrage trading on the European power exchange intraday continuous and day-ahead auction spot markets. The results show that through smart pool composition, an aggregator can increase revenue per vehicle by up to seven-fold across the markets compared to randomly assembled pools. In the Central European market, for example, the potential V2G revenues on the FCR market (380 €) exceeded those of arbitrage trading (28 € − 203 €) in 2020. In a simulation, we show the increased degradation of the vehicle battery in V2G operation compared to sole use for mobility with a smart charging strategy. However, the additional revenue can make V2G financially worthwhile, depending on costs for measuring equipment, bidirectional charging stations, and aggregator costs.


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