Electric vehicle route planning using real-world charging infrastructure in Germany
Christopher Hecht, Karoline Victor, Sebastian Zurmühlen, Dirk Uwe Sauer, eTransportation, 27 October 2021.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are a way to reduce emissions from mobility. To replace conventional vehicles, EVs must be able to deliver a similar level of comfort on long-distance travel. A key enabler here is an adequate charging infrastructure (CI). In this paper, we evaluate the current CI in Germany, a leading adopter of EVs in Europe. The goal of this evaluation is to understand where innovations and investments need to take place such that overall costs are minimized while user comfort is maximized.
We perform this evaluation by analysing travel duration for five typical EVs on 60 routes through Germany. We include non-linear, state-of-charge-dependent charging power as well the non-linear velocity-dependent energy consumption. EVs are modelled after five typically used vehicles in Germany and charging stations are based on real-world data taken from the federal registry. This level of detail in modelling allows for representative results.
In our sample, travel time is ∼8% longer when charging compared to non-stop driving. The delay strongly depends on route distance where many routes with <300 km length can be driven non-stop while some extreme cases through areas with unsuitable infrastructure result in 30% more driving time. The necessary breaks were in line with recommendations for truck drivers in Germany. To understand the impact of key technical data we perform a sensitivity analysis. The most relevant factors are start state of charge (SOC) since a low SOC means that typically an additional stop is necessary, often at unfavourable locations. A start SOC of 30% results in 30% additional travel time compared to a non-stop drive. A low energy efficiency and battery capacity of the car (70% of base case) increases travel time by 20%. Increasing charging station power does not have a strong effect since current vehicles cannot charge at 350 kW.