Determination of SoH of Lead-Acid Batteries by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
M. Kwiecien, J. Badeda, M. Huck, K. Komut, D. Duman, D.U. Sauer; Applied Science 2018, 8(6), 873
The aging mechanisms of lead-acid batteries change the electrochemical characteristics. For example, sulfation influences the active surface area, and corrosion increases the resistance. Therefore, it is expected that the state of health (SoH) can be reflected through differentiable changes in the impedance of a lead-acid battery. However, for lead-acid batteries, no reliable SoH algorithm is available based on single impedance values or the spectrum. Additionally, the characteristic changes of the spectrum during aging are unknown. In this work, lead-acid test cells were aged under specific cycle regimes known as AK3.4, and periodic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and capacity tests were conducted. It was examined that single impedance values increased linearly with capacity decay, but with varying slopes depending on the pre-history of the cell and measurement frequency of impedance. Thereby, possible reasons for ineffective SoH estimation were found. The spectra were fitted to an equivalent electrical circuit containing, besides other elements, an ohmic and a charge-transfer resistance of the negative electrode. The linear increase of the ohmic resistance and the charge-transfer resistance were characterized for the performed cyclic aging test. Results from chemical analysis confirmed the expected aging process and the correlation between capacity decay and impedance change. Furthermore, the positive influence of charging on the SoH could be detected via EIS. The results presented here show that SoH estimation using EIS can be a viable technique for lead-acid batteries.