Battery Storage Systems

  • Determination of open circuit voltage via thermo-dynamic equations
  • Kinetics of batteries: ohmic resistances, butler-volmer equation, diffusion
  • Basic concepts of battery storage systems technology
  • Lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries and supercaps technology in detail: basic electrochemical setup and used materials, safety of different materials, electrical properties, current- and temperature dependencies, typical aging processes, charging and discharging behavior, deduction of appropriate battery management strategies, necessary components of battery management systems
  • System technical elements of battery packs: Design of chargers and charging method, Cell balancing systems, Thermal management, Modeling approaches, Basic algorithms for battery diagnostics, Protection of battery packs, Total integration of battery cells in battery packs
  • Approaches to accelerated lifetime tests
  • Training of presentation techniques

For further information on the lecture: RWTH Online


Seminar "Batteries, Storage Systems, Fuel Cells and Power Generators" - Focus: Energy Storage Systems

This course is designed to sharpen the technical presentation skills of Masters Students. Each student selects a topic from a provided list. From this topic, the student develops a power point presentation and gives a practice talk to an assigned advisor. The advisor gives pointers regarding slide construction, speaking style, posture, etc. The student will then give a formal presentation in class and receive feedback from the professor and his classmates. A three page technical paper is also written on the topic. Feedback is provided by advisors for the paper.

For further information on the seminar: Campus



  • Common areas of application for electrical and thermal energy storage systems: portable devices, consumer electronics, industrial processes, solar power plants, energy grids, vehicles, etc.
  • Thermal high- and low-temperature storage systems
  • Mechanical energy storage systems for electrical energy: flywheel, pumped storage, compressed air storage
  • Electrical storages: Coils and SuperCaps
  • Electrochemical storage systems for electrical energy: basic chemical reactions, electrical properties, aging, applications, storage systems
  • Primary batteries of different technologies
  • Rechargeable electrochemical energy storages: lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, NiCd/NiMH, NaS/NaNICl, redox-flow batteries, hydrogen storage systems
  • Economical evaluation for different applications
  • Classification of storage technologies and alternative reserve control technology

For all of the storage technologies, technical structure, electrical and thermal properties, safety issues, possibility of recycling and requirements for the overall storage system are discussed. Whenever necessary, possible issues regarding the availability of the materials are evaluated.

As a homework, the students develop a suitable concept for a given application. Besides choosing and dimensioning the storage technology, system topics, economic topics, possible social conflicts and technological development possibilities are analyzed and elaborated.

For further information on the lecture: Campus


Disruptive Battery Technologies and Innovation

Lithium ion battery technology has enabled revolutions in consumer electronics. Smartphones and tablets could not deliver expected performances without the introduction of Lithium ion battery cells with high energy density. Following this breakthrough in mobile electronics, the electrification is the next sector being transferred by enabling battery technology.

This course expands on the design, construction, and ageing of lithium ion cells. The study continues into the material costs and takes a closer look at just why (or why not) this technology is considered disruptive. Additionally topics include the core concepts of Clayton Christensen’s acclaimed book “The Innovator’s Dilemma”, start-up business models, and application specific designs of lithium ion chemistries.

For further information on the lecture: Campus


Industrieller Produktentwicklungsprozess am Beispiel von Batteriesystemen für Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen

The lecture follows the design process of a battery. The focus is mainly on organizational and structural processes of an industrial development process, less on technical challenges. The process from concept to production shall be shown and the main topics are examined. Even if the lecture focuses on battery development, an important goal is to understand this process as a basic procedure in the automotive industry.

Product concept: Requirements, overall concept and key performance parameters (KPI’s), technical specification and agree- & disagree-process

Development: Process of product development, V-model for development, automotive SPICE, ISO 26262, monitoring shown on lithium-ion batteries as an example: performance, aging, cost and safety, what is a “BTV”?, testing of lithium-ion batteries: validation of concept, validation of design, functional testing, safety testing and lifecycle, what’s “A-, B-, C-, and D-Muster” and what do they have to fulfill?

Production planning and controlling: Design to cost, purchasing, tolerance management, production process, planning of manufacturing plants, spots and workers, construction of entire production lines, requirements for the location, process-“FMEA”

Series launch: Test bench technology, Assurance of quality, start of a production line, education of workers

Series controlling: Quality- and supplier management, failure analysis, field experience – how is the product used? Were the concepts correct?

For further information on the lecture: Campus